The gibbon population on Hainan Island has decreased precipitously over the last half century. The main threats that face the Hainan Black Crested Gibbon are: The Kadoorie Conservation China and Fauna and Flora International organisations have performed surveys and are now taking action to help save this critically endangered species. Hoolock gibbon. But historically, it was widely distributed in the country; in the 1950s, there used to be over 2,000 gibbons in Hainan. Pileated Gibbon: Hylobates pileatus >47'000. Hainan black crested gibbon (Nomascus sp. Trotz des Schutzes scheint sich die Population nicht zu erholen. Nomascus hainanus (Hainan Black Crested Gibbon) is a species of primates in the family gibbons. (Zhang, et al., 2010; … Geographic Range. It is an animal with great agility and as intelligent as a human being. Min speaking Hainanese often … The Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), once widespread across Hainan, China, is now found only in the Bawangling National Nature Reserve. Greater than or less than estimates (e.g., >500,000 or <250) are simply reverted to their numbers (500,000 and 250 respectively). cf. Mammals Conservation Actions This species is listed in CITES Appendix I. Limited Taxon. The Hainan gibbon sings duets for bonding and mating. The Laotian black crested gibbon (N. c. lu) occurs in northwestern Laos in an isolated population on the east bank of the Mekong in Laos. China The only populations … The goals of the survey were to investigate the current status of the Hainan gibbon to better understand its situation and make recommendations. The Hainan gibbon recently made news with the formation and dispersal of a new breeding pair. Males are generally completely black and have white or buff cheeks, while the females are a golden or buff colour all over with black patches including a streak of black on the head. With a total population of about 30 individuals, the Hainan gibbon has the unenviable distinction of world’s rarest ape, and possibly world’s rarest mammal. They are found in the indo-malayan realm. [8] The most recent count found 22 Hainan gibbons split between two families, one of 11 and one of seven members, with four loners, all residing in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island. [13] Gibbon bones are prized in traditional medicine and this belief led to many mass hunts between 1960 and 1980, leading to the death of approximately 100 gibbons. The current population is of 22 animals, one family of 11, another of 7 and 4 lone individuals. Resource availability, predation, and human expansion, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Hainan Bawangling National Nature Reserve, List of endangered and protected species of China, "Molecular systematics of Indochinese primates", "Hainan gibbon decline charted in Chinese records", "The Hainan black crested gibbon: Most critically endangered ape", "The current status of the Hainan black-crested gibbon, "Illegal Deforestation Threatens the Last 23 Hainan Gibbons", "The Critically Endangered black crested gibbon, "Hainan Gibbon Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, Version 1", "The Influence of Gibbon Primary Seed Shadows on Post-dispersal Seed Fate in a Lowland Dipterocarp Forest in Central Borneo", Gibbon Systematics and Species Identification, Conservation: Glimmer of hope for world's rarest primate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hainan_black_crested_gibbon&oldid=994771248, IUCN Red List critically endangered species, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 13:15. Reproduction is dioecious. It is legally protected in Viet Nam (Appendix 1B of Decree 32, 2006) and in Lao PDR (‘Prohibition’ category in the list of protected species) and in China as a Class I Protected Animal under the … [11], The Hainan gibbons reside in three different types of forests on the island. nasutus hainanus is on the verge of extinction. Their main area of occupancy is known as the primary forest (Old-growth forest). They are listed as critically endangered by IUCN and in cites appendix i. Other species of gibbons have been shown to be important factors in seed dispersal of several plant species, most notably figs and other fruit bearing plants. The Hainan Black Crested Gibbon is a … Hainan gibbon couple by Reiner Gogolin on flickr. “Save the Hainan Gibbon!” it reads, as a larger-than-life pair of the worried-looking apes gaze out at passing cars and motos. Cao-Vit Crested Gibbon: Nomascus nasutus: 100. Hainan gibbon couple by Reiner Gogolin on flickr. Hainan Black Crested Gibbon Nomascus hainanus (Thomas 1892) collect. Jiang Zhou, Fuwen Wei, Ming Li, Jianfeng Zhang, Deli Wang, Ruliang Pan, Hainan Black-crested Gibbon Is Headed For Extinction, International Journal of Primatology, 10.1007/s10764-005-2933-x, 26, 2, (453-465), (2005). [9] Over 25% of the Hainan gibbon’s habitat has been reduced due to illegal pulp paper plantation growers. The Hainan black-crested gibbon is endemic to Hainan Island in southern China. Following studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s only limited observations were made of the remaining population in the Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, China, and the most optimistic estimation of the population size was 23 individuals. While in the 1950s, more than 2,000 gibbons … Hainan black crested gibbon (N. hainanus, Fig. The reasons for this decline are largely due to developing rubber and commercial logging industries, the construction of roads, the human population boom (between 1950 and 2003), and a subsequent increase in human settlements are collectively contributed to wiping out the Hainan gibbon’s original lowland rainforest habitat. The Hainan gibbon ( Nomascus hainanus ), formerly widespread across Hainan Island ([ 3 ][3]), is now the rarest primate and among the rarest mammals ([ 4 … habitat in the Bawangling National Nature Reserve (Bawangling) in order to determine the size of the gibbon population. They are currently identified as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List. [13] Naturally, the population boom led to the construction of roads and towns to accompany the developing rubber and timber industry. The Hainan black-crested gibbon is under grave threat of extinction. With a population of merely 29, the tropical … The Laotian black crested gibbon (N. c. lu) occurs in northwestern Laos in an isolated population on the east bank of the Mekong in Laos. Sarawak surili: Presbytis chrysomelas: 200–500: CR: Perrier's sifaka: Propithecus perrieri: 230: CR: One of the 25 most endangered … The animals live in a small area of Hainan Island in … The Hainan black-crested gibbon or Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), is a species of gibbon found only on Hainan Island, China. Females, conversely, are a golden or buff color with black patches, including a streak of black on the head. 1989). Geographic Range. cf. The species is distributed only in small areas of Hainan Island in China. Up the slope to the west of the village, just beyond the rubber trees, begins the blue-green forest of Bawangling National Nature Reserve, a 300-square-kilometer protected area that’s home to the last remaining population of the Hainan black-crested gibbon (Nomascus hainanus). Hainan black crested gibbon (N. hainanus, Fig. The Hainan black-crested gibbon is one of man's closest relatives living in the Bawangling National Nature Reserve, on China's southern island province of Hainan. Alterations in the characteristics of the Hainan ecosystem that negatively affect the gibbons are indicative of negative impact on other species as well. It holds this opinion-based distinction for several reasons. While in the 1950s, more than 2,000 gibbons were found over the entirety of Hainan Island, a study in 2003 found 13 total gibbons split into two groups and two lone males,[7] and in 2004 only 12-19 Hainan gibbons were found exclusively in the Hainan Bawangling National Nature Reserve. The breeding characteristics for the Hainan gibbon do not lend themselves to rapid population growth. They are currently identified as Critically Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List. Decreasing Conservation Attention. [7] With the initial survey results, the 2005 update focused on reparative action. With a population of merely 33, the tropical rainforest of Bawangling National Nature Reserve is their … Hainan black crested gibbon: Nomascus hainanus : 20: CR: Population was estimated at over 2,000 in the late 1950s. [9] The species is currently vulnerable to being eliminated by a single major storm or epidemic. [3] Its habitat consists of broad-leaved forests and semi-deciduous monsoon forests. Key Words: Hainan black crested gibbon, extinction, Indochina In October 2003, we carried out a large-scale survey of the remaining gibbon (Nomascus sp.) Weight . [4] The males are all almost completely black, with sometimes white or buff cheeks. Habitat loss is the primary cause in the decline of the Hainan gibbon; poaching has also been a problem. Black Crested Gibbon Nomascus concolor. The island is approximately oval in shape and measures about 160 miles (260 km) from east to west and 130 miles (210 km) from north to south at its widest point. Since the name Hainan Gibbon is … Greenpeace has been calling on Hainan to better enforce its laws on poaching and logging. [12] The secondary forests are less suitable for the Hainan gibbons than the primary forests. Reproduction is dioecious. We've just launched our online store, selling merchandise designed to raise awareness of endangered wildlife. In 2015, only 10 animals existed, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, or the IUCN. Historically, they were widespread in China: government records dating back to the 17th century state that their range used to cover half of China. Better equipiing patrols on the island and attempts to convert farmland to primary forests with figs and myrtles being planted are some of the actions being taken along with educating people in the area. In the late 90s, these species face the danger of extinction. 8 H. Trinh-Dinh et al. They are listed as critically endangered by IUCN and in cites appendix i. While in the 1950s, more than 2,000 gibbons were found over the entirety of Hainan Island, a study in 2003 found 13 total gibbons split into two groups and two lone males, and in 2004 only 12-19 Hainan … [4], Hainan black-crested gibbons are under grave threat of extinction. [16] Therefore, the destruction of the natural vegetation on Hainan Island, coupled with the dwindling gibbon population bodes ill for the recovery of native plant species. From the 1950s through the 1980s loggers, encouraged by the national forestry bureau, cut 1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) of forest, about 37 to 47 percent of China’s … Field study: Population structure, social behaviour of the Hainan Gibbon. The black crested gibbon inhabits tropical evergreen, semievergreen, deciduous forests in subtropical and mountainous areas. Kloss's Gibbon: Hylobates klossii: 20'000-25'000. In response to the declining population of Hainan gibbons, a collaborative status survey and conservation plan was published in 2003 and updated in 2005. The Critically Endangered black crested gibbon Nomascus concolor of China, Laos and Vietnam is threatened by deforestation and habitat destruction but there have been no studies of how it uses its forest habitat, probably because of the typically rugged topography and the species' shyness of humans. [12] Even with the secondary and dwarf forests for the gibbons to reside in, the destruction of primary forests still severely impacts the gibbon population in a negative manner. Mittermeier claimed in 2007 that all 25 species could be elevated off the list within five to ten years if conservation organizations had the necessary resources. In 1998 the population was said to be 17 (Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden 2001). In a story that has become all too familiar, rapid human population expansion during the Qing Dynasty and the 20th century would eventually destroy the majority of the country’s gibbon habitat. [10] Originally denizens of lowland forest, logging has driven them to less suitable habitat at higher altitudes. Hainan has been a major focus for international conservation as it harbors a unique vertebrate fauna, including one of the most critically endangered apes (the Hainan Black-Crested Gibbon … Hainan black-crested gibbon (Nomascus hainanus) As one of four global famous anthropoid apes, Hainan black-crested gibbon Gibbon has been classified as National Class I animal by the State Government. Western Hoolock : Hoolock hoolock: 80'000- 110'000. Population. 1A) ... Only three breeding females survived in this population, which was thought to represent the last population of Hainan black crested gibbon left at the start of the twenty-first century (Chan et al., 2005), putting the species in the unenviable position of being the world's most endangered primate species (Zhou et al., … Donate today to help support the world's wildlife. They are found in the indo-malayan realm. The few remaining gibbons exhibit polygynous relationships; small families typically consist of one breeding male, two mature females, and their offspring. and, at times, leaves, and insects. [9], Sexual dichromatism is distinct in the Hainan gibbon. [2] Historically, they were widespread in China: Government records dating back to the 17th century state that their range used to cover half of China,[5] although the records in question might represent multiple species, as some are from areas separated from each other by physical barriers such as large rivers that gibbons would have difficulty crossing. With a total population of only 30 individuals, the Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus) is the world’s rarest ape and one of the world’s rarest mammals. Javan or Silvery Gibbon: Hylobates moloch: 4'000-4'500. [13] Aside from direct interactions between humans and gibbons, the low income of most residents of Hainan has led to their reliance on the forests for firewood, food, and herbs for use in traditional medicine, further amplifying human impact on the environment.[13]. Population. habitat in the Bawangling National Nature Reserve (Bawangling) in order to determine the size of the gibbon population. The number of the Hainan black-crested gibbons has decreased mainly in the 1970s due to habitat loss. By 1989, the Hainan gibbon population was reduced to only 21 gibbons in four groups restricted to Bawangling Nature Reserve (Liu et al. The low genetic diversity of the remaining Hainan gibbon population is consistent with their severe population decline (99.4%), which has occurred over the past 70 years (Zhou et al., 2008). found that gibbons spent only 0.5% of the thirteen-month study period in dwarf forests. [15] This designation indicates that status of the Hainan gibbon is a marker for the health and stability of its ecosystem. The impact that the extinction of the Hainan gibbon could have is not well characterized due to the limited amount of research. The government then established the Bawangling National Nature Reserve to connect the fragmented habitats of the species. They are currently identified as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List. Black Crested Gibbon: Nomascus concolor: 1'300-2'000. Description. The size of the species is around 49 centimetres in length. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the eastern black crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) from Hòa Bình and Cao Bằng provinces of Vietnam and Jingxi County in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The Hainan gibbon or Hainan black-crested gibbon of China (Nomascus hainanus) is critically endangered and is the rarest primate in the world. These actions forced gibbon communities to higher elevations. [7][13] The plan also called for educating the residents of the island on the importance of the Hainan gibbon. In 2020, it was announced that the population has increased to 30 animals. The rare mammal species, also known as the Hainan black-crested gibbon, used to have a population of 2,000 primates during the 1950s until they were affected by severe habitat loss and hunting. The number of the Hainan black-crested gibbon has decreased mainly in the 1970s due to habitat loss. The discovery of a new breeding pair raises hope for the survival of the world's rarest primate, the Hainan Gibbon. Eastern … [4] The arms are used to swing from tree to tree, which is known as brachiation. Aside from primary forest, the gibbons split their time between two areas known as secondary forests and dwarf forests. The Hainan black-crested gibbon Nomascus sp. International Journal of Primatology , , – . From the 1950s through the 1980s loggers, encouraged by the national forestry bureau, cut 1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) of forest, about 37 to 47 percent of China’s … Although Hainan black-crested gibbons have been on the list of the most endangered primate species in the world for many years, their environment is still deteriorating, especially on Hainan … It has been observed that not all sexually mature females in the wild are breeding, however, the reasons for this are unclear. Pileated Gibbon: Hylobates pileatus >47'000. The species is very slender and has long arms and legs, while not having a tail. The loss of habitat directly impacts both sources of food and shelter the gibbons need to survive. Until the end of January 2019, all funds raised will go to supporting the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary in the heart of the Way Kambas National Park on the island of Sumatra which is successfully breeding this incredibly amazing animals. In the 1960s, much of Hainan's lowlands were deforested to make way for rubber plantations and commercial logging, causing a dramatic decline in their population. In this study, we integrated data based on field … The Hainan Black Crested Gibbon is a species which is coloured differently for each sex. A major result of habitat loss is the reduction of resources available to the Hainan gibbons. Greenpeace and FFI conservation groups have been involved in raising public awareness both locally in East Asia and abroad. The current population is of 22 animals, one family of 11, another of 7 and 4 lone individuals, The size of the species is around 49 centimetres in length, The weight of the species ranges between 5.8 to 10 kilograms. This popula- tion is completely surrounded b H.y leucogenys to the east (Groves, 1984; Fooden et ah, 1987) and its affinity with concolor H. is doubted. [13], Zhou et al. Its current statu s i unknown. Hoolock gibbon. 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